Single axis solar tracker using arduino pdf

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Arduino Solar Tracker Using LDR Sensor & Servo Motor

Sravana Kalyani K. The aim of this paper is to consume the maximum solar energy through solar panel. A Solar Tracker is a device onto which solar panels are built-in which tracks the motion of the sun ensuring that maximum amount of sunlight strikes the panels all over the day. Power output from a solar cell will be high when it is facing the sun. The active sensors continuously monitor the sunlight and alternate the panel towards the direction of the sun.

Four light dependent resistors LDR have been used to trace the synchronization of sunlight by detecting brightness level of sunlight. For rotation, two standard servo motors are been used. The effectiveness of output power will increase when compared with the traditional model Fixed solar panel.

Rise in the cost of fossil fuels has created an urgency to conserve these fuels, and engineers across the world are looking for alternative renewable sources of energy. Renewable energy sources occur in nature which are regenerative or exhaustible like solar energywind energyhydro powergeo thermalbiomass ,tidal and wave energy. Most of these alternative sources are the manifestation of solar energy. Solar PV panels directly convert radiation from the sun into electrical energy.

Their efficiency is Three possible ways of increasing the efficiency of the solar PV panels are through increase of cell efficiency, Fig 1. Single axis tracker maximizing the power output and the use of a tracking Dual Axis trackers have two degrees of freedom added to system. For places around the equator where there is no the system.

Arduino Solar Tracker (Single or Dual Axis)

For maximum absorption of sunlight, the panel significant change in the apparent position of the sun, single can move both in east-west and north-south direction. Since axis trackers are best option. The efficiency of the tracking two linear actuators are usedthey are more efficient than system and weather are the key roles to indicate how much the single axis solar trackers.

They have one degree of freedom which act as the axis of rotation. A single linear actuator motor is Fig 2. Dual axis tracker used to drive the panel according to the sun movements. Apart of scattered radiations is reflected back into space. Sunlight has two components, the direct beam and diffuse beam. Diffuse radiation is that solar radiation received from the sun after its direction has been changed by reflection and scattering by Fig 4.

Block diagram of solar tracker the atmosphere.This sounds simple enough, except that the sun moves throughout the day. This is why there are now a number of different mechanisms which work on a range of principles with the purpose of aligning your panel or array of panels directly towards the sun, they are called solar trackers.

There are two principle types of trackers, single and duel axis trackers.

Arduino Solar Tracker (Single or Dual Axis)

Single axis trackers are adjusted every month or so account for seasonal changes in the suns position, the single axis is then used to track the daily movement of the sun across the sky. Duel axis trackers eliminate the need for monthly adjustment by using one axis to track the suns daily movement and another axis to track the seasonal movement. This solar tracker control system is designed to take light measurements from the east and west left and right side of the solar panel and determine which way to move the panel to point it directly at the source of the light.

A servo is used to actuate the panel tracker; these are available in a broad range of sizes and can be scaled according to your panel size. Although this tracker is single axis, the two sensors and servo can simply be duplicated to provide dual axis control. This project assumes you know the basics of Arduino programming, otherwise read my article on getting started with Arduino.

You could also take this project further by building your own solar panel as well, here is our guide on how to build a solar panel at home. If you are thinking of switching some or all of your homes power requirements to solar power, read my article on switching to solar power first.

Update: I have had a number of requests to show how this project and code can be modified to drive a linear actuator for heavier loads and panel arrays. I have written up a "how to" on the physical changes required as well as the revised software to make a linear actuator driven solar tracker. Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson.

Here is a list of the items which you need in order to complete this project. If you are looking to make a dual axis tracking stand then you will need to double up on the servos, LDRs and resistors. The specific servo model or size has not been stated as it depends on the size and weight of your solar panel. The one used in this project is a 9 gram analogue servo. You can use any size PWM hobby servo with the Arduino although the larger servos will require their own power source.

First you need to start by assembling the components onto your solar panel, or breadboard.Advantage of this project is that Solar panel will always follow the sun light will always face towards the sun to get charge all the time and can provide the supply the maximum power.

How to make solar tracker using Arduino UNO and LDR-Make a solar mobile charger

The prototype is very easy to build. Below you will find the complete description of how it works and how the prototype is made.

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Check the various circuits based on LDR here. The servo will move the solar panel towards the LDR whose resistance will be low, mean towards the LDR on which light is falling, that way it will keep following the light. And if there is same amount of light falling on both the LDR, then servo will not rotate.

Check the Demonstration Video at the end of this Article. First of all, take a small piece of cardboard and make a hole at one end. We will insert the screw in it to fix it with the servo later on. Now fix two small pieces of cardboard with each other in a V shape with help of glue or hot gun and place solar panel on it.

Then attach the bottom side of the V shape to the other end of small piece of cardboard in which you made a hole in first step. Now insert the screw in the hole you made on card board and insert it through the hole into the servo. The screw comes with the servo motor when you buy it. Now place the servo on another piece of cardboard. The size of the cardboard should be larger enough so that you can place a Arduino Uno, a breadboard and a battery on it. Attach the LDRs on the two sides of the solar panel with the help of glue.

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You will have to connect these with the resistors later on. Now place the Arduino, battery and the breadboard on the cardboard and make the connection as described in the Circuit diagram and Explanation section below.

single axis solar tracker using arduino pdf

The final prototype is shown below. Arduino recommended input voltage is from 7 to 12 volts but you can power it within the range of 6 to 20 volts which is the limit. Try to power it within the recommended input voltage.Pages: [1]. Hi all, I'm relatively new to Arduino and I'm working on a project with solar energy. As of now, the DC motor follows the LDR with more light hitting on it, but I would like the motor to rotate at certain angles instead of continuously rotate and I don't know how to achieve this.

Please help if you can! Here is the code: Code: [Select].

single axis solar tracker using arduino pdf

What is the point of doing the calculation for voltage? If you're just checking to see which one is greater then just use the ADC readings. Why waste resources on floating point calculations you don't need? DC motors don't have angular control. For that you would want a servo. Or you would have to put some sort of encoder or other sensor on the motor that could tell you the angle. Keep Arduino stuff out on the boards where it belongs. The reason why we're calculating the voltage is that of the voltage divider in which the LDRs are included.

We want to keep track of the voltage to see if they're reading it correctly. I read about the encoder and I'm planning to perhaps use it, but I wouldn't know which one to buy or how to use it since I've never used them before.

If you are sun tracking a worm drive DC gear motor with duel outputs may work out well. One output shaft for the drive coupling and the other for a rotary encoder.January 18, 0 Comments. Trackers direct solar panels or modules towards the sun. This blog describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal static axis to a rotational axis and hybrid dual axis.

Arduino Solar Tracker

For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, an efficient single axis and hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism.

These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed trackers a hybrid one.

single axis solar tracker using arduino pdf

The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. Materials I have used easily available components for this prototype. Specific materials should be designed in case of larger systems as per requirement. Dual axis trackers have two degrees of freedom that act as axes of rotation. These axes are typically normal to one another.

The axis that is fixed with respect to the ground can be considered a primary axis. The axis that is referenced to the primary axis can be considered a secondary axis.

Dual axis trackers allow for optimum solar energy levels due to their ability to follow the Sun vertically and horizontally. No matter where the Sun is in the sky, dual axis trackers are able to angle themselves to be in direct contact with the Sun.

May 06, 0 Comments. Read More. March 26, 0 Comments. August 14, 0 Comments.Solar energy is one of the fastest growing industries in the world; today more than 65 GW energy is produced by solar power. Since solar energy is renewable, it is a good power source, especially for developing countries.

In this project, I am going to show you how to make a solar tracker using Arduino Nano. The solar panel tracker is designed to follow the sun movement so that maximum light intensity hits on the solar panel, thus increasing the power efficiency.

This system can also be successfully implemented in other solar energy based projects water heaters and steam turbines. There are basically two types of Arduino sun trackers. One of them is the single axis solar tracker and the other is dual axis. Single axis solar tracking system moves the solar panel from east to west in a day to point in the direction of the sun.

Since the East-West tracking is more important, I will be explaining more of the single axis solar tracking. In this project an Arduino Nano is used, which works as a controlling unit.

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A dummy solar plate is attached in parallel to the axis of servo motor and both the sensors are kept on the dummy solar plate as shown in the figure below.

The arrangement is made in such a way that the movement of sun is from sensor 1 to sensor 2, as shown in the mage below. Sun is in right Side — Light on sensor2 is high because shadow of barrier falls on sensor1 so solar plate movie anticlockwise.

Sun is in the middle — Light on both sensors are equal so, plate will not rotate in any direction. Output is shown in the demo video below. You can see that the plate moves in the direction of light, but some fluctuation is visible in video because light is coming from multiple sources. Fluctuation is automatically removed when system is placed in direct sunlight.

Using a breadboard or Zero PCB are also other simpler options to create this solar tracker circuit. Arduino Solar Tracker — Circuit Diagram. The sensors are connected in series with 10 k ohm resistors. A servomotor is also connected to the digital pin D D10 is a PWM pulse width modulation pin. A momentary switch is also connected to digital pin D2, mainly for calibration purposes. When the switch is pressed D2 pin will act as the ground GND. A volt adapter or 9 volt battery, can be used to power this whole circuit.

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RAW pin in Arduino Nano is the power pin. Download Program. Two integers are defined by names sensor1 and sensor2. All these states are used for internal processes. In the void setup sensor1, sensor2 and calswitch are defined as input. Now calibration process is done. The rotational movement of the solar panel should not should be confined between o and 90 degrees. This project is featured by self-calibration so it does not need any preset or variable resistor for calibration; you just need to press a momentary switch.We all know during summer heat is more intense because sun rays are perpendicular to the earth surface and hence the solar energy is concentrated over a small region.

Freeduino board Atmega Operating Voltage.

single axis solar tracker using arduino pdf

Input Voltage recommended. Input Voltage limits. Analog Input Pins. DC Current for 3. Flash Memory. Clock Speed. Servo is most widely used actuator in project like robotic arms, Rc plane, self balancer, multirotors, etc. The servo motor has three wires unlike normal PMDC motors which have two wires. These signals are PWM signal of varying duty cycle and frequency of 50Hz analog servos or Hz digital servos. On time.

Off time. Higher the intensity or brightness of light the Lower the resistance and vice versa. Input ADC :. Output PWM :. In our program we will set an initial angle for servo arm and then increment it or decrement it according to our output from LDR. Circuit Connections are shown in the Circuit Diagram Tab. Structural details:. You can make your own design, below are the self explanatory images of the one I made.

I just hot glued every part and it was ready within 20 minutes. The material I used was light weight Depron Ad board. You can very well use cardboard or thermocol, ply etc but remember that bottom platform should be strong enough to hold everything and top platform movable should not be very heavy.

Figure : Top view.


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